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Canada

Canada

Capital Ottawa
Largest city Toronto
Official languages English and French
Recognised regional languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Cree, Dëne Sųłiné, Gwich’in, Inuvialuktun, Slavey and Tłįchǫ Yatiì[1]
Ethnic groups 80.0% White/European (English, French, Scottish, Irish, German, others), 4.0% South Asian, 3.9% Chinese, 3.8% Aboriginal, 3.3% Other Asian, 2.5% Black/African, 2.5% Others

Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
- Monarch HM Queen Elizabeth II
- Governor General Michaëlle Jean
- Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Legislature Parliament
- Upper House Senate
- Lower House House of Commons
Establishment
- British North America Acts July 1, 1867
- Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931
- Canada Act April 17, 1982
Area
- Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nd) 3,854,085 sq mi
- Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km²/344,080 mi²)
Population
- 2009 estimate 33,731,000 (36th)
- 2006 census 31,612,897
- Density 3.2/km2 (219th) 8.3/sq mi

Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world’s second largest country by total area and shares the world’s longest common border with the United States to the south and northwest.

The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal people. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled along, the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years’ War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

A federation comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages both at the federal level and in the province of New Brunswick. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada has a diversified economy reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, NATO, OECD, WTO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Francophonie, the OAS, APEC, and the United Nations.

Where in the world is Canada? See the map.

Where in the world is Canada? See the map.

Canada flag

Canada flag

 
Canada flag

Canada flag

Canada flag

Canada flag


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